1097 РFirst crusade: the crusaders led by Godefroy de Bouillon, Boh̩mond de Tarente and Raymond IV, count of Toulouse, begin the siege of Antioch.

1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as the Strait of Magellan.

1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the heads of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate.

1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on a flag, hoisted by settlers in Taunton, Massachusetts, in defiance of British rule in colonial America.

1797 – In Boston Harbor, the US Navy 44-gun frigate USS Constitution is launched. A heavy three-masted wooden-hulled frigate of the United States Navy, was named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America.

1824 – Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.

1867 – The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed by Indian rulers from the southern Great Plains. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to settle on a reservation in western Oklahoma.

1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting president against lynching in the Deep South.

1940 – The first edition of Ernest Hemingway’s novel For Whom the Bell Tolls is published.

1944 – World War II: The first kamikaze attack. A Japanese fighter plane carrying a 200 kilograms (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off the island of Leyte at the start of the Battle of the Gulf of Leyte.


1959 – In New York, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens to the public.

1959 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the US Army to NASA.

1983 – The meter is defined at the Seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1 / 299,792,458 of a second.

1986 – In Lebanon, pro-Iran kidnappers claim to have kidnapped American writer Edward Tracy (released in August 1991).

1994 – North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program: North Korea and the United States sign a framework agreement that requires North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.